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import param
import numpy as np 
import pandas as pd
import panel as pn

import altair as alt
import plotly.graph_objs as go
import as pio
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

pn.extension('vega', 'plotly', defer_load=True, template='fast')
import hvplot.pandas


Let us start by configuring some high-level variables and configure the template:

XLABEL = 'GDP per capita (2000 dollars)'
YLABEL = 'Life expectancy (years)'
YLIM = (20, 90)
ACCENT = "#00A170"

PERIOD = 1000 # milliseconds

    title="Hans Rosling's Gapminder",
<param.parameterized._ParametersRestorer object at 0x118a1f610>

Extract the dataset#

First, we’ll get the data into a Pandas dataframe. We use the built in cache to speed up the app.

def get_dataset():
    url = ''
    return pd.read_csv(url)

dataset = get_dataset()

YEARS = [int(year) for year in dataset.year.unique()]

country year pop continent lifeExp gdpPercap
209 Burundi 1977 3834415.0 Africa 45.910 556.103265
515 Ethiopia 2007 76511887.0 Africa 52.947 690.805576
617 Guinea 1977 4227026.0 Africa 40.762 874.685864
1110 Nicaragua 1982 2979423.0 Americas 59.298 3470.338156
841 Korea, Rep. 1957 22611552.0 Asia 52.681 1487.593537
694 Iceland 2002 288030.0 Europe 80.500 31163.201960
1687 Zambia 1987 7272406.0 Africa 50.821 1213.315116
1654 Vietnam 2002 80908147.0 Asia 73.017 1764.456677
705 India 1997 959000000.0 Asia 61.765 1458.817442
715 Indonesia 1987 169276000.0 Asia 60.137 1748.356961

Set up widgets and description#

Next we will set up a periodic callback to allow cycling through the years, set up the widgets to control the application and write an introduction:

def play():
    if year.value == YEARS[-1]:
        year.value = YEARS[0]

    index = YEARS.index(year.value)
    year.value = YEARS[index+1]    

year = pn.widgets.DiscreteSlider(
    value=YEARS[-1], options=YEARS, name="Year", width=280
show_legend = pn.widgets.Checkbox(value=True, name="Show Legend")

periodic_callback = pn.state.add_periodic_callback(play, start=False, period=PERIOD)
player = pn.widgets.Checkbox.from_param(periodic_callback.param.running, name="Autoplay")

widgets = pn.Column(year, player, show_legend, margin=(0,15))

desc = """## 🎓 Info

The [Panel]( library from [HoloViz](
lets you make widget-controlled apps and dashboards from a wide variety of 
plotting libraries and data types. Here you can try out four different plotting libraries
controlled by a couple of widgets, for Hans Rosling's 
[gapminder]( example.

Source: [pyviz-topics - gapminder](

settings = pn.Column(
    "## ⚙️ Settings", widgets, desc,


Define plotting functions#

Now let’s define helper functions and functions to plot this dataset with Matplotlib, Plotly, Altair, and hvPlot (using HoloViews and Bokeh).

def get_data(year):
    df = dataset[(dataset.year==year) & (dataset.gdpPercap < 10000)].copy()
    df['size'] = np.sqrt(df['pop']*2.666051223553066e-05)
    df['size_hvplot'] = df['size']*6
    return df

def get_title(library, year):
    return f"{library}: Life expectancy vs. GDP, {year}"

def get_xlim(data):
    return (data['gdpPercap'].min()-100,data['gdpPercap'].max()+1000)

def mpl_view(year=1952, show_legend=True):
    data = get_data(year)
    title = get_title("Matplotlib", year)
    xlim = get_xlim(data)

    plot = plt.figure(figsize=(10, 6), facecolor=(0, 0, 0, 0))
    ax = plot.add_subplot(111)

    for continent, df in data.groupby('continent'):
        ax.scatter(df.gdpPercap, y=df.lifeExp, s=df['size']*5,
                   edgecolor='black', label=continent)

    if show_legend:

    return plot

pio.templates.default = None

def plotly_view(year=1952, show_legend=True):
    data = get_data(year)
    title = get_title("Plotly", year)
    xlim = get_xlim(data)

    traces = []
    for continent, df in data.groupby('continent'):
        marker=dict(symbol='circle', sizemode='area', sizeref=0.1, size=df['size'], line=dict(width=2))
        traces.append(go.Scatter(x=df.gdpPercap, y=df.lifeExp, mode='markers', marker=marker, name=continent,

    axis_opts = dict(gridcolor='rgb(255, 255, 255)', zerolinewidth=1, ticklen=5, gridwidth=2)
    layout = go.Layout(
        title=title, showlegend=show_legend,
        xaxis=dict(title=XLABEL, type='log', **axis_opts),
        yaxis=dict(title=YLABEL, **axis_opts),
        autosize=True, paper_bgcolor='rgba(0,0,0,0)',
    return go.Figure(data=traces, layout=layout)

def altair_view(year=1952, show_legend=True, height="container", width="container"):
    data = get_data(year)
    title = get_title("Altair/ Vega", year)
    xlim = get_xlim(data)
    legend= ({} if show_legend else {'legend': None})
    return (
                alt.X('gdpPercap:Q', scale=alt.Scale(type='log'), axis=alt.Axis(title=XLABEL)),
                alt.Y('lifeExp:Q', scale=alt.Scale(zero=False, domain=YLIM), axis=alt.Axis(title=YLABEL)),
                size=alt.Size('pop:Q', scale=alt.Scale(type="log"), legend=None),
                color=alt.Color('continent', scale=alt.Scale(scheme="category10"), **legend),
            .properties(title=title, height=height, width=width, background='rgba(0,0,0,0)') 

def hvplot_view(year=1952, show_legend=True):
    data = get_data(year)
    title = get_title("hvPlot/ Bokeh", year)
    xlim = get_xlim(data)
    return data.hvplot.scatter(
        'gdpPercap', 'lifeExp', by='continent', s='size_hvplot', alpha=0.8,
        logx=True, title=title, responsive=True, legend='bottom_right',
        hover_cols=['country'], ylim=YLIM, xlim=xlim, ylabel=YLABEL, xlabel=XLABEL

Bind the plot functions to the widgets#

mpl_view    = pn.bind(mpl_view,    year=year, show_legend=show_legend)
plotly_view = pn.bind(plotly_view, year=year, show_legend=show_legend)
altair_view = pn.bind(altair_view, year=year, show_legend=show_legend)
hvplot_view = pn.bind(hvplot_view, year=year, show_legend=show_legend)

plots = pn.GridBox(
    pn.pane.HoloViews(hvplot_view, sizing_mode='stretch_both', margin=10),
    pn.pane.Plotly(plotly_view, sizing_mode='stretch_both', margin=10),
    pn.pane.Matplotlib(mpl_view, format='png', sizing_mode='scale_both', tight=True, margin=10),
    pn.pane.Vega(altair_view, sizing_mode='stretch_both', margin=10),